PRESENT PERFECT / PAST SIMPLE

has= ‘shave= ‘vehave not= haven’t 

Note that short forms are not used in positive short answers.

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‘Have you washed the dishes yet?’ ‘Yes, I have.’ (NOT Yes, I’ve.)

Present perfect – use

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Past events when time is not mentioned

We use the present perfect to talk about past actions or events when time is not mentioned, i.e. We don’t say when these events happened.

I‘ve broken my arm.I’ve passed the exam.She’s found a job.

just already, yet

We often the present perfect with just, alreadyyet. We can use just after the verb have to emphasise that these events are very recent.

Tony has just called.

We use already in positive sentences to talk about actions that we have completed sooner than we expected. Already goes after the verb have.

I‘ve already finished my homework. 

We use yet in negative sentences and questions to talk about things that we expect to happen soon. Yet goes at the kết thúc of the sentence.

Have you finished your homework yet?I haven’t finished my homework yet

recently

We often use the present perfect with recently to talk about past recent actions.

They‘ve recently bought a new car.

today, this week, this month, this year

We can use the present perfect with time expressions when the time we mention has not finished.

I‘ve seen John today. (=Today has not finished.)Has she called you this week?

Past experiences – never, ever, before

We use the present perfect to lớn talk about past experiences when we don’t say or we don’t know when something happened.

He has been to the moon. He’s an astronaut.haven’t been to India.

never, ever, before

We often use the words never, ever, or before to talk about experiences.

I‘ve never read this book.Have you ever seen a John Wayne film.haven’t experienced anything like this before.

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The best thing I’ve ever done

We can use the present perfect simple with a superlative adjective and ever.

This is the best meal I’ve ever had.It’s the most amazing place we’ve ever travelled to.

How many times

We can also use the present perfect to lớn say how many times something has happened until now.

I’ve watched this film three timesWe’ve been to Paris twice

have gone to or have been to?

We say someone has gone somewhere when this person is still away, & we say someone has been somewhere when this person has already come back from that place.

Tom has gone to lớn Ireland. He’ll be there for a couple of weeks. (=He’s in Ireland now.)We have been to lớn Ireland three times. We love it. (=We are not in Ireland now.)

Duration from the past until now – for, since

We can use the present perfect with for, since & how long lớn ask or talk about situations that started in the past và have not finished.

We‘ve been married for 25 years. I‘ve had this watch since I was a kid. How long have you been friends?

Compare:

We‘ve been married for đôi mươi years. (=We are married now)We were married for đôi mươi years. Then we divorced. (We are not married now)

for + period of time; since + moment in the past

We use for + period of time (2 hours, 3 days, 20 years, etc.) and we use since + the moment in the past when something started.

I’ve been here for hoursShe’s been my teacher for three yearsI’ve been unemployed since MayI’ve lived in this town since I was born

lately, all morning/day/year/etc.

We can also use the present perfect with lately or with all + period of time (all day, all morning, all my life, etc.) to talk about actions that started in the past và continue in the present.

She’s been with me all dayI’ve been very busy lately

Don’t use ago

We can’t use ago with the present perfect.

I‘ve had my watch for 2 years. (NOT I’ve had my watch since 2 years ago.)

Past simple or present perfect?

When did it happen?

We use the present perfect (NOT past simple) to talk about past experiences và actions when we don’t say or don’t know when they happened.

I’ve lost my keys. We‘ve been khổng lồ a very nice restaurant.

We use the past simple (NOT present perfect) when we mention or ask about when something happened, or when the time is known by the speaker and the listener. We often use a past expression (last week, yesterday, when I was a child, etc.)

We arrived yesterday. (NOT We’ve arrived yesterday.)When did the accident happen?

Giving details in past simple

We use the present perfect khổng lồ introduce a past event or experience, but if we continue talking & we give details, then we use the past simple.A: I‘ve been to lớn the cinema.B: What did you see?A: I saw a very good film by…A: Oh, you‘ve broken your arm.B: Yes, I have.A: How did it happen?